Envy's Non-Innocent Victims
Envy has often been seen as a vice and the envied as its victims. I suggest that this plausible view has an important limitation: the envied sometimes actively try to provoke envy. They may, thus, be non-innocent victims. Having argued for this thesis, I draw some practical implications.
Aristotle. (384 BC-322 BC) 2015. Rhetoric. Translated by Rhys Roberts. London: Aeterna Press.
Bankovsky, Miriam. 2018. "Excusing Economic Envy: On Injustice and Impotence." Journal of Applied Philosophy 35: 257–279. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/japp.12194
Becker, Joshua. 2016. "A Helpful Guide to Overcoming Envy," Becoming Minimalist. Accessed November 27, 2016. http://www.becomingminimalist.com/ungreen-with-envy/.
Ben-Ze'ev, Aaron. 2002. "Are Envy, Anger, and Resentment Moral Emotions?" Philosophical Explorations 5: 148–154.
Bommarito, Nicolas. 2017. Inner Virtue. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190673383.001.0001
Brown, James. 1994. Smoke and Mirrors: How Science Reflects Reality. London: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203305355
Chaucer, Geoffrey. (1387-1400) 2011. The Parson's Tale. Arcadia, CA: Tumblar House.
Damasio, Antonio. 2005. Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York, NY: Penguin.
D'Arms, Justin. 2016. "Envy." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by Edward N. Zalta. Last modified December 22, 2016. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2009/entries/envy.
D'Arms, Justin, and Daniel Jacobson. 2000. "The Moralistic Fallacy: On the 'Appropriateness' of Emotions." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 61: 65–90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2653403
D'Arms, Justin, and Alison Kerr. 2008. "Envy in the Philosophical Tradition." In Envy, edited by Richard Smith, 39–59. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195327953.003.0003
de Sousa, Ronald. 2018. "How to Think Yourself Out of Jealousy." In Shadows of the Soul: Philosophical Perspectives on Negative Emotions, edited by Christine Tappolet, Fabrice Teroni, and Anita Ziv, 132–142. New York, NY: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315537467-15
______. 1987. The Rationality of Emotions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Dubner, Stephen J. 2016. "How to Make a Bad Decision." Freakonomics. Podcast, November 16, 2016. http://freakonomics.com/podcast/make-bad-decision/.
Eliot, George. (1876) 1996. Daniel Deronda. London, UK: Wordsworth.
Farrell, Daniel. 1980. "Jealousy." The Philosophical Review 89: 527–559. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2184735
Frankfurt, Harry. 1988. "Identification and Wholeheartedness." In The Importance of What We Care About, 159–177. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511818172.013
Frye, Harrison. 2016. "The Relation of Envy to Distributive Justice." Social Theory and Practice 42 (3): 501–524. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5840/soctheorpract201642314
Hartzmark, Samuel, and Kelly Shue. 2018. "A Tough Act to Follow: Contrast Effect in Financial Markets." Manuscript. Accessed July 25, 2018. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2613702.
Houghton Kristen. 2011. "And Then I'll Be Happy: Don't Let the Green-Eyed Monster Overcome Your Happiness." The Huffington Post. Accessed November 27, 2016, http://www.becomingminimalist.com/ungreen-with-envy/.
James, Henry. 1909. The Portrait of a Lady. Vol. 2. New York: Random House.
Kant, Immanuel. 1998. The Metaphysics of Morals. Translated by Mary Gregor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kenny, Anthony. 1963. Action, Emotion, and Will. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Korsgaard, Christine. 1989. "Personal Identity and the Unity of Agency: A Kantian Response to Parfit." Philosophy and Public Affairs 18: 101–132.
______. 2009. Self-Constitution: Agency, Identity, and Integrity. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
La Caze, Margeurite. 2001. "Envy and Resentment." Philosophical Explorations 4: 31–45. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13869790108523341
______. 2002. "Reevaluating Envy and Resentment." Philosophical Explorations 5: 155–158. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10002002058538729
Merritt, Anna, Daniel Effron, and Benoît Monin. 2010. "Moral Self-Licensing: When Being Good Frees Us to be Bad." Social and Personality Psychology Compass 4: 344–357. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00263.x
Nagel, Thomas. 1998. "Concealment and Exposure." Philosophy and Public Affairs 27: 3–30 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1088-4963.1998.tb00057.x
Neu, Jerome. 1980. "Jealous Thoughts." In Explaining Emotions, edited by Amelie Rorty, 425–464. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Protasi, Sara. 2016. "Varieties of Envy." Philosophical Psychology 29: 535-549. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2015.1115475
______. 2017. "Invideo et Amo: on Envying the Beloved." Philosophia 45: 1765–1784. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11406-017-9863-7
Roberts, Robert. 1991. "What Is Wrong with Wicked Feelings?" American Philosophical Quarterly 28: 13–24.
Thomason, Krista. 2015. "The Moral Value of Envy." Southern Journal of Philosophy 53: 36–53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/sjp.12095
Sadcheva, Sonya, Rumen Iliev, and Douglas Medin. 2009. "Sinning Saints and Saintly Sinners." Psychological Science 20: 523–528. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02326.x
Scheman, Naomi. 1979. "On Sympathy." The Monist 62: 320–330. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5840/monist197962317
Smith, Richard and Sung Hee Kim. 2007. "Comprehending Envy." Psychological Bulletin 133: 46–64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.46
Solomon, Robert. 1977. "The Rationality of the Emotions." Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 8: 105–114. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5840/swjphil19778232
Tappolet, Christine. 2018. "Nasty Emotions and the Perception of Values." In Shadows of the Soul: Philosophical Perspectives on Negative Emotions, edited by Christine Tappolet, Fabrice Teroni, and Anita Ziv, 20–29. New York, NY: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315537467-3
Twain, Mark.  1989. Following the Equator. New York, NY: Dover Publications.
van de Ven, Niels, Marcel Zeelenberg, and Rik Pieters. 2009. "Leveling Up and Down: The Experiences of Benign and Malicious Envy." Emotion 9: 419-429. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015669
van Hooft, Stan. 2002. "La Caze on Envy and Resentment." Philosophical Explorations 5: 141–147. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10002002058538727
Villines, Zawn. 2013. "Five Tips for Dealing with Envy." GoodTherapy.org. Accessed November 27, 2016. http://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/five-tips-for-dealing-with-envy-0426137.
Copyright (c) 2019 Iskra Fileva
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The JPE is a biannual online, open access scholarly journal that publishes full-length articles, book symposiums, book reviews, and special issues under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, in which authors will retain the copyright to their work (i.e., their initial manuscript and any revisions submitted to the JPE), and manage their own permissions for other uses. The rights to any material produced by the JPE, including any pre-publication proofs, are held by the JPE as the licensor under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. The JPE gives authors the right to use and distribute their published articles in accordance with this license, however, we advise authors and readers to please consult the terms of this license before using any of the material that is published on the JPE site.