CMOS Author-Date: Sample Citations for the Journal of Philosophy of Emotion

This style sheet has been adapted from the The Chicago Manual of Style

Title: Journal of Philosophy of Emotion

Applies To: All Works Containing Citations

Created On: 2019-02-28 22:25:25

Last Edited: 2019-04-12


15: Author-Date References



The author-date system is used by many in the physical, natural, and social sciences and is recommended by Chicago for works in those areas. Sources are cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by the author’s last (family) name, the publication date of the work cited, and a page number if needed. Full details appear in the reference list—usually titled “References” or “Works Cited”—in which the year of publication appears immediately after the author’s name. This arrangement makes it easy to follow a text citation to the corresponding full source in the reference list. (In electronic formats, text citations may be linked to their corresponding reference list entries.)


Text citations

Like many other cultural fields, the video game industry is one that rewards novelty, especially when it is packaged in terms that are recognizable to consumers and critics (Lampel, Lant, and Shamsie 2000; Hutter 2011). . . . But the forefront of the industry finds continuous experimentation with the singular challenge of video gaming: how to create a convincing form of narrative storytelling that is nonetheless animated, perhaps uniquely so, by the actions of the users (Bissell 2011).


Reference list entries

Bissell, Tom. 2011. Extra Lives: Why Video Games Matter. New York: Vintage Books.

Hutter, Michael. 2011. “Infinite Surprises: Value in the Creative Industries.” In The Worth of Goods: Valuation and Pricing in the Economy, edited by Jens Beckert and Patrick Aspers, 201–20. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lampel, Joseph, Theresa Lant, and Jamal Shamsie. 2000. “Balancing Act: Learning from Organizing Practices in Cultural Industries.” Organization Science 11 (3): 263–69.


Author-date references versus notes and bibliography

The author-date system differs primarily in its use of parenthetical text citations rather than citations in numbered notes and, in the bibliography (called a reference list in author-date style), the placement for the year of publication. 


Notes and bibliography entries as models for author-date references

Most reference list entries are identical to entries in a bibliography except for the position of the year of publication, which in a reference list follows the author’s name. Unlike bibliography entries, each entry in the reference list must correspond to a work cited in the text. Text citations differ from citations in notes by presenting only the author’s last name and the year of publication, followed by a page number or other locator, if any.


Basic structure of a reference list entry

In a reference list entry, the year of publication is the second element, following the author’s name. Otherwise, a reference list entry is structured like an entry in a bibliography: the elements are separated by periods, and the first-listed author’s name, according to which the entry is alphabetized in the reference list, is usually inverted (last name first). Titles are capitalized headline-style unless they are in a language other than English; titles of larger works such as books and journals are italicized; and titles of smaller works such as journal articles are presented in roman and enclosed in quotation marks. Noun forms such as editor, translator, volume, and edition are abbreviated, but verb forms such as edited by and translated by are spelled out.


Basic structure of an in-text citation

In the author-date system, a citation in the text usually appears in parentheses and includes only the first two elements in a reference list—the author and the year of publication (hence the name of the system), with no intervening punctuation. A page number or other locator may be added, following a comma. Terms such as editor or translator, abbreviated in a reference list, are omitted from a text citation. In a parenthetical reference to two or more works, a semicolon usually separates each work from the next.


Author-date system with notes

Where footnotes or endnotes are used to supplement the author-date system, source citations within notes are treated in the same way as in text.

  1. James Wilson has noted that “no politician ever lost votes by denouncing the bureaucracy” (1989, 235). Yet little is actually ever done to bring major reforms to the system.



Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. 2015. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Smith, Zadie. 2016. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press.

In-text citations

(Grazer and Fishman 2015, 12)

(Smith 2016, 315–16)


Chapter or other part of an edited book

In the reference list, include the page range for the chapter or part. In the text, cite specific pages.

Reference list entry

Thoreau, Henry David. 2016. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.

In-text citation

(Thoreau 2016, 177–78)

In some cases, you may want to cite the collection as a whole instead.

Reference list entry

D’Agata, John, ed. 2016. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.

In-text citation

(D’Agata 2016, 177–78)


Translated book

Reference list entry

Lahiri, Jhumpa. 2016. In Other Words. Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

In-text citation

(Lahiri 2016, 146)



For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry. Reference list entries (in alphabetical order). For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the text, if any (or simply omit).

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Austen, Jane. 2007. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle.

Borel, Brooke. 2016. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ProQuest Ebrary.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Melville, Herman. 1851. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale. New York: Harper & Brothers.

In-text citations

(Austen 2007, chap. 3)

(Borel 2016, 92)

(Kurland and Lerner 1987, chap. 10, doc. 19)

(Melville 1851, 627)


Journal article

In the reference list, include the page range for the whole article. In the text, cite specific page numbers. For articles consulted online, include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) as a permanent URL that begins Reference list entries (in alphabetical order).

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. 2017. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11 (1): 1–34.

LaSalle, Peter. 2017. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38 (1): 95–109. Project MUSE.

In-text citations

(Keng, Lin, and Orazem 2017, 9–10)

(LaSalle 2017, 95)

(Satterfield 2016, 170)

Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the reference list; in the text, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the reference list, followed by et al.

Reference list entry

Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. 2017. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 89 (5): 463–73.

In-text citation

(Bay et al. 2017, 465)


News or magazine article

Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. In the reference list, it can be helpful to repeat the year with sources that are cited also by month and day. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in the text but are omitted from a reference list entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Manjoo, Farhad. 2017. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017.

Mead, Rebecca. 2017. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker, April 17, 2017.

Pai, Tanya. 2017. “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox, April 11, 2017.

Pegoraro, Rob. 2007. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post, July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.

In-text citation

(Manjoo 2017)

(Mead 2017, 43)

(Pai 2017)

(Pegoraro 2007)

Readers’ comments are cited in the text but omitted from a reference list.

In-text citation

(Eduardo B [Los Angeles], March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo 2017)


Book review

Reference list entry

Kakutani, Michiko. 2016. “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges.” Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, November 7, 2016.

In-text citation

(Kakutani 2016)



Reference list entry

Stamper, Kory. 2017. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25.

In-text citation

(Stamper 2017)


Thesis or dissertation

Reference list entry

Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. 2013. “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago.

In-text citation

(Rutz 2013, 99–100)


Website content

It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, use n.d. (for “no date”) in place of the year and include an access date.

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Bouman, Katie. 2016. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51.

Google. 2017. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017.

Yale University. n.d. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017.

In-text citations

(Bouman 2016)

(Google 2017)

(Yale University, n.d.)


Social media content

Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example below). If a more formal citation is needed, a reference list entry may be appropriate. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post. Comments are cited in reference to the original post.


Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Chicago Manual of Style. 2015. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015.

Souza, Pete (@petesouza). 2016. “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit.” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016.

In-text citations

(Chicago Manual of Style 2015)

(Souza 2016)

(Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style 2015)


Personal communication

Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text only; they are rarely included in a reference list.

In-text citation

(Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017)